Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine 66% effective in global trial —

Jan 30, 2021 – 09:41 Kyodo News Building of the company Johnson and Johnson in the Juan Carlos I Business Park in Madrid, it is an American multinational of medical, pharmaceutical and perfumery products, Spain.(Getty/Kyodo) WASHINGTON – Major U.S. pharmaceutical company Johnson & Johnson said Friday that its single-dose experimental vaccine was 66 percent effective […]

Johnson & Johnson’s single-dose vaccine 66% effective in global trial —

Many patients are now asking about which COVID-19 #vaccine would be best for them. I find it best to summarize questions into a list:

  • The COVID vaccine is designed to illicit an immune response and headaches, fever, muscle aches are really not side effects at all, but rather your immunity “gearing up” to meet the real virus. There are now 2 vaccines that can do this, and one more probably on the way. (Johnson & Johnson)
  • Patients who have allergies always want to know if it’s safe to take the COVID vaccine given the fact that they have allergies. It is recommended that all Americans, regardless of their allergy status, receive some vaccine in order to prevent COVID-19 infections.
  • That being said, anyone can have a reaction to a viral vaccine, including COVID. These reactions can be anywhere from mild itching at the site of injection to anaphylaxis requiring assistance with your breathing. Yes, rates of these severe reactions are low, but here’s what’s important about allergic reactions to COVID vaccines: you can’t predict them.
  • Previous reactions to non-COVID vaccines should be noted and those patients should wait longer at the injection facility (up to 45 minutes) to make sure they will tolerate any allergic reactions. But still, you can’t predict who will react and who will tolerate the vaccine just fine. Allergies involve IgE ; an antibody that is unique to asthma, atopic dermatitis, hay fever, and even the production of eosinophils. We use IgE to predict who will develop an allergic reaction, and because IgE is not involved with COVID-19 infections or immunization, we can’t predict who will react and who won’t.
  • The Johnson & Johnson version of COVID-19 vaccination has not been approved by the FDA as of 2/16/21, but I expect it soon. This vaccine is DNA (not mRNA), but is implemented into the cell nucleus to produce the same Spike protein produced by both mRNA vaccines. Why the J & J version has fewer adverse events isn’t fully understood, but you’re likely to only get a mild fever with the DNA vaccination. What I like best about the J & J version is “one and done!”
New England Journal of Medicine–found on 2nd page of Google search

So does the new vaccine work well enough to keep me from getting COVID? It is helpful to search Google for your own answers as I did with the above article from NEJM. Find ZDogg.com to help you with questions about the vaccine and laugh a little bit in the process. What does appear to be reasonable about the new vaccine is:

  • Less effective compared to the 2 dose schedule (mRNA) in terms of MILD infection. In other words, you may still have cold like symptoms, but you won’t end up in the hospital, ICU, or death as we’ve seen so much with COVID-19.
  • One vaccination is all you require for at least this season and with the variants we currently know about. Just keep in mind that the influenza vaccination changes every year because of variants–who knows if COVID will be the same?
  • The CDC is your friend. Even though you may not agree with everything the CDC has done in the past year, they’re website gives you lots of great information that everyone can agree on. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html (right click your browser and it will take you there)
  • We have so many options in fighting this year long COVID-19 pandemic and much information that is true can be found on reliable websites that I’ve mentioned above.

Whatever vaccine you decide to get, you’re working towards regaining our lives back–don’t give up now!

The Time Course of COVID-19 Vaccine Development–It’s Been Studied for a Long Time!

#anaphylaxis, #covid-19, #ige

Contradictory skin test and ImmunoCAP results–which is better?

This question comes up in my office almost everyday….should I do skin testing or blood work?  As you can see from the response of national experts, it depends.  There is NO test that can boast 100% accuracy to predict whether or not you will react to a food.  In fact, the gold standard if you will, is still the oral food challenge.  Here is some food for thought (really, do you have to pun)

  1. Clinical history is very important in determining food allergy.  If you can eat a food without difficulty breathing, rash, or hives, you are most likely not allergic.  You may have a positive test, but that only means you’ve had previous exposure to the food.
  2. I will often obtain both skin testing and ImmunoCap (blood work) to clarify the presence of IgE-mediated allergy. If both tests are negative, you may have an adverse reaction to a food, not the severe life-threatening anaphylaxis.  Very important distinction!
  3. If in doubt, a food challenge is always a procedure to consider.  Here’s why.
  4. Sometimes the food in question just isn’t worth the trouble to challenge.  No one says you have to eat strawberries!
  5. If you challenge peanuts for example, in the doctor’s office and experience anaphylaxis, better there than at home.  Epinephrine is more readily available and in many cases, IV access and full resuscitation is available within minutes of your reaction. 
  6. This is another reason why a single test or treating allergy without experience is not a good idea.  Read the link below and tell me just how complicated things can become!

Contradictory skin test and ImmunoCAP results.

#allergy, #anaphylaxis, #food, #immunocap, #immunoglobulin-e

Put This Myth to Rest-(Dirt Jet Pro/SCRUBS hand sanitizer wipes)

Everyday I teach patients the difference between “allergy” and “irritant” reaction.  TV ads are overloaded with allergy advertisements in an attempt to sell antihistamines, so why wouldn’t you think that everyone has allergy of some kind.  The link below is a question about allergy (anaphylaxis in this case) to chemicals.  Consider the following:

  1. Adverse reactions to pollen, food, chemicals can be divided into “allergy” or “intolerance/irritants“.
  2. Allergy is defined as the production of IgE to the substance in question.  This is why you have positive skin tests and blood testing.  Why does this matter?
  3. You can only be “desensitized” to allergens, not chemicals.  IgE can be decreased and if you don’t have IgE to begin with you can’t delete its effect.
  4. The only treatment for irritants is to avoid them, regardless of whether the substance is a food or chemical.
  5. For chemical reactions or food intolerance, there’s not much to say except to stay away.  Click on the link below just to make sure!

Possible anaphylaxis to chemicals contained in cleaning agents (Dirt Jet Pro/SCRUBS hand sanitizer wipes).

#allergy, #anaphylaxis, #food-intolerance, #immunoglobulin-e

Oral food challenge to peanut

Food allergy is a very common and even popular disease to have.  This results in some predictable patient behavior such as:

1.       I have allergy based on a blood test only, and I tolerate this food all the time.  This may not be allergy at all, but simply a condition called “asymptomatic hypersensitivity”.  Relax, some foods you can eat without allergy symptoms even though a blood or skin test is positive. 

2.       It is fashionable nowadays to have gluten sensitivity.  Many patients will perform gluten challenges at home to see if bread or starches make abdominal cramping, skin rashes, or even concentration problems improve or worsen with the offending food.  This practice becomes a problem if you are concerned with anaphylaxis (difficulty breathing, low blood pressure) to foods such as peanut, milk, or eggs to name a few.  It’s one thing to experience more abdominal bloating after a gluten challenge and a much more dangerous situation to lose consciousness after ingesting peanut. 

3.       I’m grateful to be a member of the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (AAAAI) in part because they help me as an allergist to stay current of all the thousands of recommendations published every year on my specialty.   One such service is “Ask the Expert” forum and I’d like to share a recent post with you about food challenges.

Here’s the take-home message and the full answer is available if you click on the link below:

1.       Food anaphylaxis can be related to the total amount of food ingested.  In other words, don’t assume that tolerating a very small amount of peanut will guarantee that you can tolerate peanuts ad lib!  Food challenges are performed under close supervision in order to determine HOW sensitive you are. 

2.       Oral desensitization to foods is still in the research stage and the experts on treating food allergy do not recommend this procedure be performed outside of a research protocol.  It only takes one bad outcome to taint any progress made with treatment of food anaphylaxis.

Anyway, it’s lunchtime, and talking about food does make me hungry!

Oral food challenge to peanut.

#american-academy-of-allergy-asthma-immunology, #anaphylaxis, #blood-test, #food-allergy, #peanut

Allergic to Antihistamines—really!

 

This is from Gary Stadtmauer, MD’s blog. 

How many times have we heard patients say they are “allergic” to drugs like antihistamines and corticosteroids?  Hypersenstivities to medications used to treat allergic diseases are fortunately uncommon. 

This is Dr. Stadtmauer’s experience with “allergy” to Benadryl….check the references below–it’s legit! 

“I have seen a couple of cases of drug exanthem from antihistamines but never immediate hypersensitivity…until now.  I recently saw a young woman who has had recurrent urticaria/angioedema of immediate onset due to Benadryl.  She had no associated symptoms.  Scratch testing to Benadryl 5mg/ml was negative but ID was positive at 0.5 mg/ml (W/F of 4/10) and 5 mg/ml (W/F o 5/10).  See image below.

One could question whether this is an IgE-mediated event.  Perhaps it is or perhaps in the occasional patient the antihistamine acts as an agonist, binding to the receptor instead of blocking it thereby triggering histamine release.  Anaphylactic shock caused by a challenge with 12.5 mg oral diphenhydramine has been reported and the authors of this case suggest the mechanism was IgE-mediated.

Benadryl Skin TestSo what?  Never say never when a patient comes in with a bizarre drug allergy or states that are allergic to Benadryl….you might be surprised!

Citations re:  Antihistamine Allergy
1. Barranco P, López-Serrano MC, Moreno-Ancillo A. Anaphylactic
reaction due to diphenhydramine. Allergy. 1998; 53: 814.
2. Weidinger S, Mempel M, Ollert M, Elser I, Rakoski J, Köhn FM,
Ring J. Anaphylaxis to mizolastine. J Allergy Clin Immunol.
2004; 114:979-81.
3. Rodríguez del Río P, González-Gutierrez ML, Sánchez-López J,
Núñez-Acevedo B, Bartolomé Álvarez JM, Martínez-Cócera C.
Urticaria caused by antihistamines: report of 5 cases. J Investig
Allergol Clin Immunol. 2009; 19 (4): 317-20.
4. Gonzalo-Garijo MA, Jiménez-Ferrera G, Bobadilla-González P,
Cordobés-Durán C. Hypersensitivity reaction to mizolastine:
study of cross reactions. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2006;
16 (6): 391-3.
5. Demoly P, Messaad D, Benahmed S, Sahla H, Bousquet J.
Hypersensitivity to H1-antihistamines. Allergy. 2000; 55: 679-80.
6. Aberer W, Bircher A, Romano A, Blanca M, Campi P, Fernandez
J, Brockow K, Pichler WJ, Demoly P for EDNA and the EAACI
interest group on drug hypersentitivity. Drug provocation
testing in the diagnosis of drug hypersensitivity reactions:
general considerations. Allergy. 2003; 58: 854-63.

#allergies, #allergy, #anaphylaxis, #benadryl, #drug-allergy-2, #histamine-antagonist, #immunoglobulin-e, #the-journal-of-allergy-and-clinical-immunology