Tag Archives: Infection

Think twice before using antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis ( simple sinusitis )

Even with simple sinusitis, the underlying process is “inflammation” not always infection.

ClinicalNews.Org

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How Do I Find Immunodeficiency?

  Immunodeficiency–does my child get too many infections?  How can I tell?  Read on in the following journal article.  Author information and citation listed at the end.  I’ll summarize for you.  Before I begin, take a look at this 3 minute (yes really) video on immunodeficiency; it will help with background information. 
 
April 11, 2011 — Three main warning signs may help identify children with underlying primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID), according to the results of a retrospective survey reported online April 11 and will appear in the May print issue of Pediatrics.  “Children with severe, recurrent, or unusual infections may have an underlying …PID,” write Anbezhil Subbarayan, MBBS, from the Department of Paediatric Allergy and Immunology, University of Manchester, Royal Manchester Children’s Hospital in Manchester, United Kingdom, and colleagues.
 
“Ten warning signs have been promoted by patient support groups to help identify children with PID, but the signs have never been tested in a rigorous scientific study.”

The objective of the study was to examine the efficacy of these 10 warning signs in the prediction of defined PID among 563 children evaluated at 2 tertiary PID centers in northern England. Medical records were reviewed for 430 children with a defined PID and 133 children for whom thorough workup did not result in a diagnosis of a specific PID.

Factors most predictive of PID were

  • A family history of immunodeficiency disease
  • Sepsis treated with intravenous antibiotics in patients with neutrophil PID (primary immunodeficiency)
  • Failure to thrive in children with T-lymphocyte PID.  In simple terms, this means you just don’t grow.
  • When these 3 signs were present, PID was correctly identified in 96% of patients with neutrophil and complement deficiencies and in 89% of children with T-lymphocyte immunodeficiencies.
  • The only warning sign that correctly identified patients with B-lymphocyte PID was a positive family history.  These are patients with NO antibody production–the “bubble boy” 

    A real life example of the bubble boy--read on to find out why

“PID awareness initiatives should be targeted at hospital pediatricians and families with a history of PID rather than the general public,” the study authors write. “Our results provide the general pediatrician with a simple refinement of 10 warning signs for identifying children with underlying immunodeficiency diseases.”

“Delayed diagnosis of PID may be associated with increased morbidity and mortality,” the study authors conclude. “In children presenting with infection, pediatricians should always inquire about a family history of PID, as this is the best predictor that the patient may also have an underlying immunodeficiency….In those with recurrent or severe infections, clinical features other than family history are often not helpful and a lower threshold is required for requesting antibody testing in which the diagnosis of a B-cell immunodeficiency is suspected.”

Selective antibody deficiency shows up a little bit differently in that children will often have recurrent ear infections or sinus disease.  A different disease altogether!

Pediatrics. Published online April 11, 2011.

Laurie Barclay, MD

Freelance writer and reviewer, Medscape, LLC

Disclosure: Laurie Barclay, MD, has disclosed no relevant financial relationships.

Vaccine update for Adults!

WASHINGTON – The Food and Drug Administration says it has approved Pfizer Inc.‘s best-selling Prevnar 13 vaccine for use in preventing pneumococcal disease in adults age 50 and older. 

The agency’s move on Friday was widely anticipated, coming a little over a month after a panel of federal health experts voted overwhelmingly to recommend the use of Prevnar 13 as a safe and effective vaccine for preventing the bacterial infection in adults.

Pneumococcal disease causes meningitis, pneumonia and ear infection.

Prevnar 13 protects against 13 strains of the disease. It’s already a standard vaccination for infants and young children.

  • Two key late-stage studies of Pfizer's blockbuster pneumococcal vaccine for children show it works at least as well as a rival in adults, a big market the drugmaker wants to tap. By Mark Lennihan, AP–good job on this article!
  • Two key late-stage studies of Pfizer’s blockbuster pneumococcal vaccine for children show it works at least as well as a rival in adults, a big market the drugmaker wants to tap.

What does this mean for you?

  • If you have chronic sinus infections or pneumonias, I will check antibody levels to see how well you fight infection.  If low, you will usually be immunized with Pneumovax™–0.50ml in adults, 0.25ml in children. 
  • Now, I have a choice:  use Prevnar 13 or Pneumovax.  Which one is better?  You would have to ask!
  • Studies haven’t been done with immunodeficient patients comparing the two vaccines, but the FDA now considers Prevnar 13 as effective in normal adults as Pneumovax. 
  • How about the cost?  You guessed it….the Prevnar 13 is ~twice as expensive as Pneumovax™
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